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Как подобрать дверные петли?

Professional tips for choosing door hinges
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Suppose you intend to buy a door unit, i.e., a door together with a door casing. In that case, you should not worry about hinges since they come with the set.

If you are buying door set components separately, then you will have to select hinges independently.

Let us look closely at hinges: their types, characteristics, etc., and select the proper ones. Then, you will learn what hinge better fits metal doors and what hinge is ideal for a wooden one.

Standard features of door hinges

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Hinges are generally classified as left hand (LH) type, right hand (RH) type, and multiple-purpose (MP) type.

Imagine facing your door and pulling it to open: if the hinge is on the right, it means it is RH type; if it is on the left, it is LH type. MP hinge fits any door.

Modern door hinges are classified with reference to various parameters, namely, location mechanism, structural design, and material.

What is a hinge made of?

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All door hinges are made of metal. Even on plastic doors, the hinges are metal, hidden by plastic covers. Of course, metal material matters. Door hinges made of steel are veterans with a long-lasting history of application. Hinges that you know from history movies were ponderous and could be manufactured by hand forging. Today, you can come across this type of hinge in ethnic designs or housekeeping premises. A dominant position in the market is occupied by modern steel-made hinges of two following types:
  • The stainless steel (SS) hinge looks sound, very endurable. These hinges give no place to corrosion, do not need painting, can be installed on interior and metallic front doors. Any SS hinge is always a costly item.
  • Hinges made of ferrous metals. Also durable enough; however, it needs paint coating. Let us consider two alternatives, powder paint coating or nickel plating.
    If your budget is tight, you will be painting your ferrous metal door hinge yourself.

Powder paint coating provides good corrosion protection.

Brass hinge is the leader in the range of expensive models. This metal is corrosion-resistant and needs no paint coating.

However, it is not as strong as steel. These are good for interior doors. Regarding hinges for the metallic entrance door, you better install a steel hinge and decorate it in a way to imitate brass (bronze, gold), provided that your design is so sophisticated.

If you decide to procure brass hinges, mind that models with bearings will have utilization properties a sequence higher than regular ones.

Alloys represent cutting-edge technologies available in the modern market.

Metal parts become durable and achieve a new standard of quality if they add high-strength metals like titanium.

However, behind a sophisticated and impressive name, there is a cheap material that will fail after one year of use.

For example, silumin. Looks attractive but can hardly be used in the capacity of a door hinge. Caution! Dishonest manufacturers keep manufacturing silumin hinges and gaining good profits in collaboration with dodgy advertisers inventing new commercial names for silumin items.

A high-quality alloy may often look identical to the cheap stuff. Check the price first. A perfect thing cannot be cheap. Besides, one more quality criterion is that the weight of counterfeit is always less than good-quality alloy or steel hinge.

How many hinges will you need?

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There are a lot of hinge types. Let us have a closer look at the most frequently used. The primary characteristic of any hinge is the weight load this hinge is capable of withstanding.

The minimum requirement for the door hinge is 15 kg.

Most durable among production models are entrance door hinges with the minimum requirement of about 100 kg.

For door leaves over 250 kg, it is preferable to fabricate special hinges.

The heavier the door, the more hinges it requires. However, hinge quantity should not exceed 4 for one door leaf.

Their locations may differ. The main thing is the distance from the upper and lower edge to the nearest hinge, which should be about 200–250 mm.

Quantity of interior door hinges:

  • Door leaf of maximum 40 kg: 2 hinges;
  • Door leaf of 40 to 60 kg: 3 hinges;
  • Door leaf over 60 kg needs 4 hinges.

Types of hinges

External hinge models

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These are the predecessor of all types of hinges. Once a human being has discovered the forging know-how, probably the door hinge became the first thing fabricated by this process.

Door hinges during that predatory time were long and durable and very often represented a part of the door leaf.

Forged models are used nowadays as well. However, this is very often a design fragment to be in line with the style of the log hut.

You can frequently come across such hinges somewhere in the backyard of the peasant house. Their exterior is rather unimpressive; therefore, they blend seamlessly with wooden gates and hangar doors.

Internal recessed hinges "male/female"

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In this case, both plates are fixed in the joint between the door edge and the casing. However, slots must be cut out for the plates at the end of the door leaf and opposite the frame to mount the hinges.

Any door can be removed and installed back within a couple of seconds. However, this is a weak point for the entrance doors.

"Male/female" definition belongs to folklore: the lower part called "male" has an axle firmly fixed inside. A plate with a hole called "female" is put onto this axle from the top.

Butt hinge

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The butt hinge is also known as a full mortise hinge. Being, in fact, identical with the "male/female" hinge, these are designed in the form of two perforated plates fixed between each other with a pin.

This model is most popular among recessed hinges. If this type of hinges fixes your interior door and you want to dismount it quickly—unscrew the plug, pull out the pin and easily remove the door leaf.

Hinges designed to be mounted on wooden entrance doors often come with a permanently sealed, non-detachable pin. To remove the door leaf, you must unscrew the hinge.

We recommend ball-bearing hinges; they will last twice as long. Besides, they work in silence, as a rule.

Butterfly hinge

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Butterfly hinge is a newcomer in the market. These are applied onto the surface and do not need slots. To attach it to the door leaf, use a self-tapping screw. As you can see, one part of the hinge hides inside the neighbouring part.

This type of hinge is easy; you only need self-tapping screws and a screwdriver to mount them.

However, a butterfly hinge is capable of bearing a weight of up to 20 kg. Furthermore, suppose you deviate a couple of millimetres from the axis during installation. In that case, your butterfly will begin thinking of how to fly away after a month.

Butterfly hinge is a good option for a young carpenter to start his career and a young family with a limited budget.

Angle hinges

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Many installers do not consider angle hinges as a particular class of door fittings since they are designed exclusively for rabbeted doors.

We will say there are two types of angle hinges: exposed laid-on models (a version of butterfly hinge) and cut-in models. As far as installation technology is concerned, corner hinges are no different from their classic sisters.

Two-way hinges

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The door leaf equipped with this type of hinge opens on either side.

These are mainly used in administrative buildings, not in house dwellings.

The design is quite simple: 2 pins with the connecting plate. We do not recommend saving when buying a double-sided hinge, as the construction is under severe strain and cheap models fly apart very quickly.

Special care must be taken during installation. Only a professional installer can install the door correctly and prevent it from deflecting to any side.

Give preference to hinges equipped with pull-back springs; they will automatically lock the door in the neutral position.

Screw-in hinge

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To install such a hinge, you drill out holes in the casing and door leaf. Then insert a support pin and screw in a fixing dowel.

Anciently, this design was used for quick mounting of the rabbeted doors. Today, some installers are using them with conventional doors, although it is not entirely correct.

Depending on the door leaf weight, you may use various pins. However, it is hardly practical to install heavy doors with this hardware because, like butterfly hinges, they are designed for door leaves under 40 kg.

Concealed hinges

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Hidden design is the "king" in the entire hinge range. This type of hinge is universal for all door types: metallic, wooden. The hinge is entirely hidden inside the casing and door leaf. We regret the time spend by potential housebreakers. It is impossible to remove this door from the hinge.

Concealed hinges are made from extreme grades of steel or alloys. For young couples with a moderate budget, forget (for the time being) about hidden hinges in your new doors. Of course, there are seemingly acceptable and cheaper options, but we do not recommend them.

Nowadays, in the market, there are hidden hinges for metallic doors. These have a particular advantage, namely, an adjustment mechanism, which is helpful where the door leaf is heavy enough. Even Chinese models have it.

You can independently install such hinge provided that you have the following range of tooling at your disposal: a portable milling machine and, with metal doors, a welding unit; otherwise, your attempts will be a failure.

Conclusion

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With limited budget and special tooling unavailable better select butterfly or screw-in model.

The screw-in design better matches the wooden door leaf.

A concealed hinge is the best option for metallic or high-price wooden ones.

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